Table 3

Associations between patient and centre characteristics with the average total scores across the six Initiative for Paediatric Palliative Care domains

N%Total score all domains, %
Mean (SD)P value*Adjusted p value*
Patient characteristics
Age
 Newborn (0–1 month)346.851.3 (22.6) 0.083 0.099
 Infant (>1–12 months)12224.553.0 (17.7) 0.388 0.459
 Preschool (>1–5 years)15030.152.2 (18.5)Ref.Ref.
 School (>5–11 years)10320.747.4 (19.6) 0.942 0.650
 Teen (>11–18 years)8917.952.9 (16.7) 0.259 0.228
Sex
 Male28557.250.4 (19.1)Ref.Ref.
 Female21342.852.8 (17.8)0.8780.744
Race
 White17335.856.5 (20.7)Ref.Ref.
 Asian11122.344.6 (16.1) 0.370 0.279
 Black†5410.946.4 (20.1) 0.045 0.047
 Indian316.255.5 (4.8) 0.436 0.448
 Mestiza5711.551.2 (20.1) 0.732 0.880
 Middle-Eastern6713.552.1 (14.2) 0.819 0.650
 Other40.855.8 (4.4) 0.985 0.837
Days in paediatric intensive care unit
 <30 days42785.751.6 (18.9)Ref.
 ≥30 days7114.350.5 (16.3) 0.431
 Comorbidities
 Single Major Diagnostic Category13326.751.4 (18.8)Ref.Ref.
 Multiple comorbidities36573.251.5 (18.5) 0.017 0.018
Centre characteristics
Number of ventilators
 <1 per bed23847.849.6 (15.1)Ref.
 ≥1 per bed26052.253.1 (21.2) 0.811
Resuscitation equipment
 <0.5 per bed36072.350.3 (20.0)Ref.
 ≥0.5 per bed13827.754.3 (13.8) 0.509
Per cent daily bed use
 <80%17635.352.4 (22.2)Ref.
 ≥80%32264.750.9 (16.3) 0.792
Beds per critical care doctor
 <2 beds per doctor31968.550.5 (19.3)Ref.
 ≥2 beds per doctor14731.651.6 (17.9) 0.884
Beds per nurse
 <2 beds per nurse24554.854.0 (19.8)Ref.
 ≥2 beds per nurse20245.247.6 (17.6) 0.212
Shift length
 <8 hours10220.567.1 (13.7)Ref.Ref.
 8–12 hours24148.453.4 (15.1) 0.079 0.056
 13–18 hours428.447.1 (22.5) 0.056 0.052
 19–24 hours204.035.6 (24.1) 0.010 0.006
 Multiple9318.734.4 (8.76) 0.001 <0.001
P value for trend <0.001 <0.001
  • Bold values are those found to be statistically significant (p-value < 0.05).

  • *P values were estimated using univariate and multivariable multilevel generalised linear models using centre as a clustering variable. The adjusted model included age, sex, race, comorbidities and shift length.

  • †After subanalysis of this variable, considering many children in the universe were of black ethnicities, we do not consider this finding significative.