Table 3

Moderators of research involvement in palliative medicine

BarrierFacilitator
Research culture and integration
SystemicLack of research recognition
  • ‘Invisible specialty’ resulting in competitive/silo working

  • Cliff edge in opportunities after completing academic training

  • Poor understanding of palliative care research

  • Challenges obtaining ethical approval


Lack of research exposure in non-academic training pathway
  • Non-academic trainees and consultants with limited research skills

Opportunities to collaborate
  • Regional collaboration and networks

  • Relationship with a university or research group


Clear and flexible academic training pathway
  • Flexibility in integrated academic pathways.

  • Anticipates transition points in careers and provides additional support

LocalLack of local integration
  • Research excluded from clinical roles


Lack of institutional research culture
  • Importance of research not recognised or valued by the workplace


Lone researcher
  • The only researcher in a team/locality (lack of role models)

Opportunities to collaborate
  • Collaboration with non-academic/clinical colleagues (medical students, trainees, consultants, multidisciplinary team members)

  • Research-focussed team-members (eg, research nurse)

  • Mentorship/support from colleagues experienced in research

  • Working in a unit with a research interest

Resources (time and funding)
SystemicWorkforce issues
  • Not enough consultants across specialty


Lack of funding and infrastructure
  • National underfunding of palliative care research

  • Lack of supportive research infrastructure

Accessible funding streams
  • Ring-fenced opportunities for palliative care

  • Recognition of underfunded/isolated ‘Cinderella’ research specialties

  • Support with grant applications

  • Longer-term grants

LocalConflict with clinical workload
  • Limited programmed activities (PAs) for research


Charitable sector workplaces
  • Limited funding

  • Indemnity difficulties in charitable hospices

Protected research time
  • Dedicated, funded research PAs including for those based in the charitable sector