Table 1

Quantitative studies. Quality assessed using the Standard Quality Assessment Criteria for Evaluating Primary Research Papers from a variety of fields

AuthorsQuestion/objective sufficiently described?Study design evident and appropriate?Method of subject/comparison group selection or source of information/input variables described and appropriate?Subject
(and comparison group, if applicable) characteristics sufficiently described?
If interventional and random allocation was possible, was it described?If interventional and blinding of investigators was possible, was it reported?If interventional and blinding of subjects was possible, was it reported?Outcome and
(if applicable) exposure measure(s) well defined and robust to measurement/misclassification bias?
Means of assessment reported?
Sample size appropriate?Analytical methods described/justified and appropriate?Some estimate of variance is reported for the main results?Controlled for confounding?Results reported in sufficient detail?Conclusions supported by the results?Summary score
An et al 21 2221N/AN/AN/A22112220.86Yes2
Bükki et al 22 2222N/AN/AN/A21220220.86Partial1
Davies et al 23 2221N/AN/AN/A21221120.82No0
Engelberg et al 24 2222N/AN/AN/A21211220.86N/A
Gao et al 25 2222N/AN/AN/A21212220.91
Hauke et al 26 2222N/AN/AN/A21101220.77
Heyland et al 27 2222N/AN/AN/A22211220.91
Heyland et al 28 2221N/AN/AN/A21220200.73
Hwang et al 29 1222N/AN/AN/A21211220.82
Kim et al 30 2222N/AN/AN/A21222200.86
Ozdemir et al 31 2222N/AN/AN/A21212220.91
Pruchno et al 32 2212N/AN/AN/A21122220.86
Sharma et al 33 2222N/AN/AN/A21212220.91
Shin et al 34 2222N/AN/AN/A12122120.86
Stajduhar et al 35 2222N/AN/AN/A11202220.82
Tang et al 36 2222N/AN/AN/A22122220.95
Tobin et al 37 2222N/AN/AN/A12212220.91
Wen et al 38 2212N/AN/AN/A22212220.91
Yoo et al 39 2222N/AN/AN/A11122220.86
Yun et al 40 1212N/AN/AN/A22222220.91
Zhang et al 41 2212N/AN/AN/A12222220.91
  • The summary score for each study is derived by calculating the total score of relevant items (ie, all items except those ‘not applicable’) and dividing it by the total possible score when excluding ‘not applicable’ items.

  • N/A, not applicable.