Table 3

Quality appraisal of primary studies

Quantitative studiesItem number checklist
Befort et al 81 2210N/AN/AN/AN/A2N/A1211N/AN/A1
Sleight et al 27 2222N/AN/AN/AN/A1N/A1221N/AN/A2
Autade and Chauhan28 2211N/AN/AN/AN/A1N/A1101N/AN/A1
Chae et al 20 2222N/AN/AN/AN/A2N/A2222N/AN/A2
Cheng et al 6 2211N/AN/AN/AN/A2N/A1220N/AN/A2
Lee et al 32 2211N/AN/AN/AN/A2N/A2221N/AN/A2
Pauwels et al 30 2222N/AN/AN/AN/A2N/A1221N/AN/A2
Vuksanovic et al 21 2121N/AN/AN/AN/A2N/A1221N/AN/A2
Fong and Cheah12 2211N/AN/AN/AN/A2N/A1212N/AN/A2
Chou et al 34 2222N/AN/AN/AN/A2N/A1221N/AN/A2
Cheng et al 10 2221N/AN/AN/AN/A2N/A2221N/AN/A2
Ellegaard et al 37 2222N/AN/AN/AN/A2N/A1221N/AN/A2
Brennan et al 41 2211N/AN/AN/AN/A2N/A0221N/AN/A2
Bu et al 42 2222N/AN/AN/AN/A2N/A1222N/AN/A2
Fang et al 46 2221N/AN/AN/AN/A2N/A0222N/AN/A2
So et al 45 2222N/AN/AN/AN/A2N/A0222N/AN/A2
Miyashita et al 52 2221N/AN/AN/AN/A2N/A1221N/AN/A2
Hodgkinson et al 47 2211N/AN/AN/AN/A2N/A0222N/AN/A2
Martinez Arroyo et al 48 2212N/AN/AN/AN/A2N/A0221N/AN/A2
Park and Hwang54 2222N/AN/AN/AN/A2N/A2222N/AN/A2
  • Item number checklist key: (1) hypothesis/aim/objective clearly described, (2) study design well described and appropriate, (3) method of patient/control group selection clearly described, (4) characteristics of the patient/control group clearly described, (5) patients randomised to the intervention group, (6) randomisation/allocation concealed, (7) characteristics of patients lost to follow-up clearly described, (8) intervention clearly described, (9) main outcome measures clearly described, (10) attempt made to blind those measuring the primary outcome of the intervention, (11) population characteristics adequately described and controlled, (12) main findings clearly described, (13) methods of analysis appropriately and clearly described, (14) estimates of variance reported for main results, (15) analyses adjusted for different lengths of follow-up, (16) data analysed according to intention-to-treat principle, (17) conclusions supported by the results. Three levels of quality assessment of scores: ▢ low risk of bias (2), ▢ unclear risk of bias (1), ▢ high risk of bias (0).