Table 2

Study characteristics

Author(s)TitleSettingNParticipantsStudy designTrial interventionMethod of evaluationHawker’s Risk of Bias score
Maloney et al 23 Patient perspectives on participation in the ENABLE II randomized controlled trial of a concurrent oncology palliative care intervention: Benefits and burdensHospital52PatientsRandomised control trialFour telephone-based educational sessions ran by advanced practice nurses with palliative care training, and monthly telephone contact. Participants completed questionnaires every 3 months until death or study completionRetrospective interview32
Aoun et al 24 Family caregiver participation in palliative care research: Challenging the mythHome322Family caregiversStepped-wedge cluster trialThe intervention groups received the Carer Support Needs Assessment Tool (CSNAT) vs a control group who received standard support. Intervention group received two visits from a nurse and telephone questionnaires were completed pre-intervention and postintervention .Retrospective interview31
Dotolo et al 25 Strategies for enhancing family participation in research in the ICU: Findings from a qualitative studyHospital25Family membersRandomised trialA facilitator to improve clinician-family communication in the ICU vs usual care. Surveys assessing depression, anxiety and Post traumatic stress disorder were mailed to family members’ homes 3 and 6 months after the patient’s death or intensive care discharge.Retrospective interview32
Véron et al 26 Recollection of participating in a trial: A qualitative study of patients with severe and very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary diseaseHospital18PatientsRandomised control trialIntervention group received an early specialist palliative care intervention and standard care vs standard care. The intervention group received monthly visits for 12 months from nurses specialising in palliative care.Retrospective interview30
  • ICU, intensive care unit.