Table 1

Quantitative studies. Quality assessed using the Standard Quality Assessment Criteria for Evaluating Primary Research Papers from a variety of fields

AuthorsQuestion/objective sufficiently described?Study design evident and appropriate?Method of subject/comparison group selection or source of information/input variables described and appropriate?Subject
(and comparison group, if applicable) characteristics sufficiently described?
If interventional and random allocation was possible, was it described?If interventional and blinding of investigators was possible, was it reported?If interventional and blinding of subjects was possible, was it reported?Outcome and
(if applicable) exposure measure(s) well defined and robust to measurement/misclassification bias?
Means of assessment reported?
Sample size appropriate?Analytical methods described/justified and appropriate?Some estimate of variance is reported for the main results?Controlled for confounding?Results reported in sufficient detail?Conclusions supported by the results?Summary score
An et al212221N/AN/AN/A22112220.86Yes2
Bükki et al222222N/AN/AN/A21220220.86Partial1
Davies et al232221N/AN/AN/A21221120.82No0
Engelberg et al242222N/AN/AN/A21211220.86N/A
Gao et al252222N/AN/AN/A21212220.91
Hauke et al262222N/AN/AN/A21101220.77
Heyland et al272222N/AN/AN/A22211220.91
Heyland et al282221N/AN/AN/A21220200.73
Hwang et al291222N/AN/AN/A21211220.82
Kim et al302222N/AN/AN/A21222200.86
Ozdemir et al312222N/AN/AN/A21212220.91
Pruchno et al322212N/AN/AN/A21122220.86
Sharma et al332222N/AN/AN/A21212220.91
Shin et al342222N/AN/AN/A12122120.86
Stajduhar et al352222N/AN/AN/A11202220.82
Tang et al362222N/AN/AN/A22122220.95
Tobin et al372222N/AN/AN/A12212220.91
Wen et al382212N/AN/AN/A22212220.91
Yoo et al392222N/AN/AN/A11122220.86
Yun et al401212N/AN/AN/A22222220.91
Zhang et al412212N/AN/AN/A12222220.91
  • The summary score for each study is derived by calculating the total score of relevant items (ie, all items except those ‘not applicable’) and dividing it by the total possible score when excluding ‘not applicable’ items.

  • N/A, not applicable.