Table 1

Profile of matched and unmatched patients who were referred and not referred to palliative care

Matched patientsUnmatched patients
Referred to palliative careNot referred to palliative careReferred to palliative careNot referred to palliative care
No of patients111011102681813
End-stage organ disease
 Heart failure17.6%17.7%11.9%13.2%
 Respiratory failure7.6%7.7%9.3%4.4%
 End-stage renal failure57.7%57.1%31.3%41.5%
 End-stage liver disease12.5%12.7%45.1%5.3%
 Advanced dementia24.3%25.0%16.0%33.9%
 Parkinson’s disease12.6%13.1%9.3%29.5%
Mean (median) days to death from start of study67.3 (15)67.3 (15)81.3 (34.5)265.1 (365)
 Heart failure64.8 (10.5)64.8 (10.5)95.5 (53.5)247.9 (362)
 Respiratory failure79.4 (27)79.4 (27)93.8 (65)260.1 (365)
 End-stage renal failure77.0 (17)77.0 (17)85.1 (42)248.8 (365)
 End-stage liver disease40.0 (12.5)40.0 (12.5)63.4 (21)203.7 (186)
 Advanced dementia56.4 (14)56.4 (14)97.2 (55)265.8 (365)
 Parkinson’s disease64.9 (12)64.9 (12)115.2 (36)305.1 (365)
Mean age at death76.977.272.179.9
 Below 450.4%0.3%1.1%1.2%
 45 to 543.2%3.4%6.7%2.9%
 55 to 6411.4%11.6%17.9%10.6%
 65 to 7420.9%20.6%29.1%14.4%
 75 to 8436.7%35.9%29.9%24.3%
 85 and above27.4%28.2%15.3%46.6%
Gender
 Male52.3%53.5%61.2%52.8%
 Female47.7%46.5%38.8%47.2%
Ethnicity
 Chinese81.4%80.0%83.2%80.3%
 Malay8.2%8.7%9.0%8.6%
 Indian7.9%8.6%5.2%6.7%
 Others2.5%2.7%2.6%4.4%
Low socioeconomic status58.6%58.3%64.6%41.3%
Mean Charlson Comorbidity Index9.09.110.98.0
Electronic frailty index
 Fit10.3%9.8%27.2%18.0%
 Mild frailty20.5%20.9%25.4%27.6%
 Moderate frailty35.9%35.8%28.0%33.0%
 Severe frailty33.3%33.5%19.4%21.4%