Table 1

Clinical and demographic characteristics of study participants

Patients included (n=174)
Age70 (58–77)
Sex
 Women78 (44.8%)
 Men96 (55.2%)
Marital status
 Single25 (14.4%)
 Married91 (52.3%)
 Divorced/separated11 (6.3%)
 Widow/widower47 (27.0%)
Aetiology
 Ischaemic62 (35.6%)
 Hypertensive15 (8.6%)
 Idiopathic69 (39.7%)
 Valvular22 (12.6%)
 Toxic6 (3.5%)
 LVEF (%)32 (25–44)
Classification according to LVEF
 HFrEF116 (66.7%)
 HFmrEF28 (16.1%)
 HFpEF30 (17.2%)
NYHA functional class
 I57 (32.8%)
 II82 (47.1%)
 III34 (19.5%)
 IV1 (0.6%)
Comorbidities
 Type 2 diabetes mellitus55 (31.6%)
 Chronic kidney disease84 (48.3%)
 Lung disease25 (14.4%)
 Coronary artery disease64 (36.8%)
 Atrial fibrillation51 (29.3%
 Depression18 (10.3%)
 Anxiety7 (4.0%)
 Obstructive sleep apnoea13 (7.5%)
 Obesity20 (11.5%)
Hospitalisations in the last year2 (1–2)
Implantable cardioverter defibrillator42 (24.1%)
+SQ83 (47.7%)
Mortality20 (11.5%)
Medication
 Beta-blockers164 (94.3%)
 ACE inhibitors136 (78.2%)
 ARBs130 (74.7%)
  • Data presented as number of patients (%) for categorical data or as median (IQR) for continuous data.

  • Those patients for whom the cardiologist would not be surprised if the patient died within the next year were coded as a +SQ.

  • ARBs, angiotensin receptor blockers; HFmrEF, heart failure with mildly reduced ejection fraction; HFpEF, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; HFrEF, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; SQ, Surprise Question.