Table 3

Summarised characteristics of included studies: part 3

Author (year)Publication typeGeographical location of studyType of care providedResearch aimStudy designStudy population and sample sizeResults regarding status and demand of palliative and hospice day-care
Husić (2009)41Original research article (quantitative)Bosnia and Herzegovina (Tuzla)Hospice day-careExplore whether a 3-month day hospice programme might improve patients’ physical and mental health following a mastectomy.Short Form Health 36 (SF-36) scale, statistically analysed.Surveyed patients (n=35).Status: multidisciplinary approach improves patients’ physical and mental health.
Hyde et al (2011)42Original research article (qualitative)UK (England)Palliative day-careExplore patient experiences.Descriptive cross-sectional study with focus groups and semistructured interviews, analysed with framework analysis.Patients (n=29) and carers (n=8).Status: sense of community and social interaction most valued.
Demand for integration of patients’ preferences into palliative day-care.
Kabel (2013)30Original research article (qualitative)UKHospice day-careExplore how hospice philosophy is interpreted and implemented in a day hospice.Observation and indepth interviews analysed with constant comparative analysis.Interviews with patients (n=3) and staff (n=35), as well as observations (n≈50).Status: provide an environment in which patients feel safe to explore their sense of personhood through various activities; start the day with a welcome drink and sitting together (sense of normality); patients at different stages of the disease trajectory.
Demand for coping techniques for patients at various points in the disease trajectory.
Kernohan et al (2006)25Original research article (qualitative/quantitative)UK (Northern Ireland)Hospice day-careExplore patient experiences with hospice day-care.Exploratory patient satisfaction survey and review of medical records, analysed with descriptive/content analysis.Hospice day-care patients (n=50), of whom n=26 completed the questionnaire.Status: attendance for emotional support, respite care and social interaction (most valued).
Demand for education about the various offerings of hospice day-care.
Kilonzo et al (2015)22Original research article (quantitative)IrelandSpecialist palliative day-careImplement outcome measures in a palliative day-care unit operating an enhanced therapeutic model.Edmonton Symptom Assessment System, Edmonton Functional Assessment Tool, McGill Quality of Life Index, Palliative Care Problem Severity Scale and quantitative analysis.Attending patients (n=102 at baseline; n=34 after 8-week cycle).Status: 2-month programme, after which patients may continue or be discharged; collaboration with an inpatient unit and a hospice home care team.
Demand for regular outcome measurement.
Lohfeld et al (2000)23Original research article (qualitative)CanadaHospice day-careExplore perceptions of hospice day-care among healthcare administrators, healthcare providers and lay people.Multiple case studies, semistructured interviews, researcher field journal entries and qualitative content analysis (first or most frequent responses equalised with the most important ones).Hospital administrators (n=9), palliative care providers (n=11) and lay people (n=8).Participants share a strong demand for a day hospice, but different opinions on location, admission criteria, volunteers, services offered and transportation.
Miyashita et al (2008)43Original research article (quantitative)JapanHospice day-careAssess patients’ quality of life and explore the need for day hospices and the satisfaction of patients and caregivers.Cross-sectional questionnaire measuring health-related quality of life (Short Form Health 8 [SF-8]), with the calculation of summary scores.Patients and caregivers (n=23) from three day hospices and patients and caregivers from eight home palliative care services (n=34).Demand for hospice day-care in Japan, especially for caregivers (time and education).
Payne et al (2008)44Original research article (quantitative)UK (England)Palliative day-careExplore social objectives at a palliative day-care unit and improve practice development.Questionnaires and structured interviews analysed with qualitative content analysis.Questionnaires completed by staff and volunteers (n=48) and interviews with patients (n=40).Status: positive perceptions among staff and patients; shared social objectives, yet differences in the perceived importance of these objectives; importance of both group activities and unstructured time.
Vandaele et al (2017)33Original research article (qualitative)BelgiumPalliative day-careExplore the benefits and challenges of palliative day-care centres.Semistructured interviews and focus group analysed with qualitative content analysis.Focus groups (n=6 from four day-care centres) and interviews with staff from five day-care centres (n=7).Status: customised care approach; collaboration with palliative home care teams; no discharge policy—visits are reduced over time; variable number of days patients can attend day-care; include patients at a non-terminal stage of disease.
Demand for improved funding and occupancy rates through advertising; clear admission criteria; change in the perception that palliative day-care is only for terminally ill patients.
Watts (2009)28Original research article (qualitative)UK (England)‘Drop-in’ sessionsExplore why patients attend day hospices and how they make sense of the support they receive.Participant observation and informal and guided conversations analysed with narrative thematic analysis.Participants (n=8–10 per session).Status: afternoon ‘drop-in’ sessions for patients with cancer twice weekly; mainly social activities; patients at various points in the disease trajectory; some former users become volunteers; value of volunteers.
Demand for further research into the benefits of hospice day-care.
White and Johnson (2004)16Original research article (quantitative)UK (England)Hospice day-careExamine the role and importance of a doctor in a day hospice setting.Retrospective case study of medical consultations and structured questionnaire.Medical consultations at the day hospice (n=287) and attending patients (n=15).Status: a doctor seems to be an essential member of the hospice day-care team; daily medical consultations.