Table 2

Summarised characteristics of included studies: part 2

Author (year)Publication typeGeographical location of studyType of care providedResearch aimStudy designStudy population and sample sizeResults regarding status and demand of palliative and hospice day-care
Gagnon et al (2015)15Textbook chapterCanadaPalliative day-care hospitalExamine the role of palliative day-care (hospitals) within the healthcare system.Review and assessment (ESAS); review (Delphi method) involving experts with 6 years of experience.Consecutively referred patients (n=154).Status: palliative day-care hospitals care for patients at all stages of the disease trajectory and represent a link between community care and other healthcare services.
Demand for the evaluation of cost-effectiveness and the identification of patients who would benefit most from palliative day-care.
Goodwin et al (2003)39Original research article (quantitative)UKPalliative day-careEvaluate day-care effectiveness (pain improvement, symptom control and quality of life).Prospective comparative study with structured questionnaires (McGill Quality of Life Questionnaire [MQOL] and POS), analysed with statistical analysis.Day-care patients (n=120) from n=5 palliative day-care centres.Status: The MQOL did not find significant differences between groups; POS ‘pain control’ and ’symptom control’ were better in the day-care group; quality of life could not be measured by health status alone.
Demand for the integration of social contact and support into future studies aimed at measuring palliative day-care outcomes.
Goodwin et al (2002)24Original research article (qualitative with a quantitative component)UKPalliative day-careExplore patient perspectives on palliative day-care.Semistructured interviews analysed with thematic content analysis; quantitative assessment of epidemiological data.Day-care patients (n=120) from n=5 palliative day-care centres.Status: most important aspect of palliative day-care is social contact.
Demand for more dialogue between centres; reconsideration of staffing levels; further consideration of location and type of patient.
Greaves (2012)26Thesis (mixed methods)UK (England)Palliative day-careExplore factors determining access to palliative day-care.Quantitative assessment of epidemiological data; document analysis and semistructured interviews analysed thematically (constant comparison and content analysis).Staff and volunteers (n=32), patients (n=11) and carers (n=7).Status: 18 factors determining access to palliative day-care.
Demand for access to palliative day-care for younger patients, patients with non-malignant diseases and ethnic minority patients; further clarification of funding.
Guest et al (2015)20Original research article (mixed methods)UK (England)Palliative day-careImplement and evaluate a therapeutic day-care programme.Emotional touchpoints (tool for evaluating patient experiences) and distress thermometer analysed with quantitative analysis; semistructured questionnaire analysed quantitatively and with thematic analysis.Attending patients (n=23) and staff (n=10).Status: 6-week multidisciplinary programme to educate patients with cancer on how to cope with problems and manage life with the disease, possibly reducing hospital admission rates and enabling patients to die at home; admission and discharge criteria.
Hearn and Myers (2001)27AnthologyUKPalliative day-careProvide information on the diversity of palliative day-care, including needs and struggles.N/A.N/A.Status: therapy-based medical models vs psychosocial models emphasising emotional and social care; multidisciplinary team approach (including a doctor) to address patients’ complex needs; clinical audit to assess quality of care.
Demand for the identification of patients who would benefit most from palliative day-care; continuous needs assessment in day units; further research on ethnic minorities in palliative day-care; care for patients with non-malignant diseases; evaluation tools.
Higginson et al (2010)32Original research article (quantitative)UK (England)Hospice day-careEvaluate patients’ use of other health services while attending hospice day-care.Prospective comparative trial and structured interviews analysed with a multivariate analysis of covariance.Day-care group participants (n=37), standard palliative care group participants (n=50) and standard palliative care group participants waiting for new hospice to be built (n=76).Status: day unit attached to inpatient hospice; use of hospice day-care in addition to existing services; use of other services seems insignificantly affected by the use of hospice day-care; significant reduction in use of therapy services within the day-care group.
Demand for the identification of patients who would benefit most from palliative/hospice day-care; a therapy-based model of care.
Higginson et al (2000)21Original research article (quantitative)UK (England)Palliative day-careExamine models of care in different palliative day-care centres.Questionnaire survey analysed with univariate analysis.Palliative day-care centres (n=40).Status: 1.77 places per 10 000 people in the region; median occupancy at 71%; various activities offered; carers support group; bereavement follow-up; admission criteria; discharge policy; volunteers as essential staff.
Hirose et al (1997)29Original research article (descriptive)JapanOutpatient salonEstablish palliative day-care through an outpatient salon.Descriptive report and discussion of the value and implications of the project for palliative day-care.Patients (n=39), with a variable number of staff members.Status: themed meetings for outpatients in the Department of Radiology ward twice monthly, managed by two counsellors; focus on psychological needs and support; promote self-help by involving patients in the planning process; include patients at all stages of the disease trajectory.
Hopkinson and Hallett (2001)40Original research article (qualitative)UK (England)Hospice day-careExplore patient perceptions of hospice day-care.Open interview analysed with phenomenological analysis.Hospice day-care patients (n=12).Status: high satisfaction among patients, who value the ability to make independent decisions and escape the patient role; hospice day-care reduces patients’ sense of isolation; offer a range of activities for patients.
  • ESAS, Edmonton Symptom Assessment System; N/A, not available; POS, Palliative Care Outcome Scale.