Table 2

Main study characteristics: study population, study aim

InterventionalObservationalOverall
Study population
Condition
 Any severe condition9 (2%)5 (6%)14 (3%)
 Any malignancy206 (48%)44 (52%)250 (49%)
 Any haematological malignancy1 (0%)1 (0%)
 Any solid tumour71 (17%)9 (11%)80 (16%)
 Multiple tumour types (restricted)50 (12%)10 (12%)60 (12%)
 Single tumour type93 (22%)16 (19%)109 (21%)
Restricted to patients with bone metastases145 (34%)21 (25%)166 (32%)
Age
 Minimum age
  ≤17 years31 (7%)11 (13%)42 (8%)
  18 years348 (81%)65 (77%)413 (80%)
  19–64 years48 (11%)7 (8%)55 (11%)
  ≥65 years3 (1%)1 (1%)4 (1%)
 Maximum age
  ≤17 years5 (1%)5 (1%)
  18–64 years7 (2%)2 (2%)9 (2%)
  65–120 years65 (15%)9 (11%)74 (14%)
  No upper limit353 (82%)73 (87%)426 (83%)
Life expectancy
 Minimum life expectancy
  >1 week to <1 month7 (2%)4 (5%)11 (2%)
  ≥1 to <3 months33 (8%)4 (5%)37 (7%)
  ≥3 to <6 months65 (15%)9 (11%)74 (14%)
  ≥6 months to <1 year31 (7%)2 (2%)33 (6%)
  ≥1 year9 (2%)1 (1%)10 (2%)
  Not specified285 (66%)64 (76%)349 (68%)
 Maximum life expectancy
  ≤6 months5 (1%)3 (4%)8 (2%)
  >6 months to ≤1 year10 (2%)4 (5%)14 (3%)
  ≤2 years2 (0%)2 (0%)
  Not specified413 (96%)77 (92%)490 (95%)
Study aim
Intervention
 Systemic drug148 (34%)148 (29%)
 Behavioural intervention125 (29%)125 (24%)
  Physical activity2020
 Procedure for pain103 (24%)103 (20%)
  Radiotherapy4848
  MR-HIFU1616
  Vertebral augmentation1212
  Radiofrequency88
  Cryoablation77
  Surgery44
  Other88
 Palliative team consultation24 (6%)24 (5%)
 Nonconventional therapies16 (4%)16 (3%)
 Procedure for other symptom9 (2%)9 (2%)
 Palliative diagnostic/biomarker4 (1%)4 (1%)
 Topic drug1 (0%)1 (0%)
 Not applicable84 (100%)84 (16%)
Research domain studied
 Pain170 (40%)18 (21%)188 (37%)
 Quality of life (global)77 (18%)18 (21%)95 (19%)
 Physical function45 (10%)7 (8%)52 (10%)
 Emotional function31 (7%)4 (5%)35 (7%)
 Healthcare planning11 (3%)15 (18%)26 (5%)
 Appetite/nutrition20 (5%)2 (2%)22 (4%)
 Social function17 (4%)5 (6%)22 (4%)
 Fatigue17 (4%)3 (4%)20 (4%)
 Palliative team performance14 (3%)5 (6%)19 (4%)
 Dyspnoea17 (4%)1 (1%)18 (4%)
 Cognitive function5 (1%)5 (1%)
 Sleep disturbance2 (0%)3 (4%)5 (1%)
 Nausea3 (1%)1 (1%)4 (1%)
 Constipation1 (0%)2 (2%)3 (1%)
Research field
 Biology275 (64%)37 (44%)312 (61%)
 Psychology113 (26%)22 (26%)135 (26%)
 Sociology17 (4%)5 (6%)22 (4%)
 Ethics25 (6%)20 (24%)45 (9%)
Primary outcome*
 Efficacy/symptom control277 (64%)39 (47%)316 (61%)
 Quality of life60 (14%)13 (16%)73 (14%)
 Feasibility/acceptability55 (13%)5 (6%)60 (12%)
 Quality of care25 (6%)15 (18%)40 (8%)
 Safety31 (7%)2 (2%)33 (6%)
 Biomarker10 (2%)6 (7%)16 (3%)
 Survival5 (1%)1 (1%)6 (1%)
 Epidemiology4 (5%)4 (1%)
Evaluation of outcome with PROs
 Yes262 (61%)35 (42%)297 (58%)
 No155 (36%)43 (51%)198 (9%)
 NA13 (3%)6 (7%)19 (4%)
  • *Studies could have more than one primary outcome (see table 1 ‘Number of outcomes’) therefor percentages do not sum up to 100%.

  • MR-HIFU, MRI-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound; NA, not applicable; PRO, patient-reported outcome.