Table 1

Characteristics of included studies

AuthorStudy designLevel of evidenceQual/quantRegionParticipantsMethods of data collectionType of outcome reported
Ali et al 28 Retrospective cohort3. Controlled cohort and case control studiesQuantitativeGrampianPatients with diagnosis of cancer and ‘terminal care’ who contacted the GMED from January 2011 to December 2011Secondary data analysisAdmission to hospital and length of stay
Allsop15 Commentary6. Expert opinionNANANANA
Allsop et al 6 Retrospective cohort4. Qualitative and observational without control groupQuantitativeLeedsPatients who died from April 2014 to March 2015 with an EPaCCS recordSecondary data analysisAchievement of PPD and ACP documentation
Broadhurst et al 29 Retrospective cohort4. Qualitative and observational without control groupQuantitativeLondonPatients with an EPaCC created between December 2015 and September 2016Secondary data analysisAchievement of PPD
Callender et al 30 Retrospective cohort4. Qualitative and observational without control groupQuantitativeLondonPatients who died from March 2011 to September 2016 with an EPaCCS recordSecondary data analysisAchievement of PPD
Hall et al 35 Qualitative interview study4. Qualitative and observational without control groupQualitativeGrampian and LothianPrimary care and out-of-hours healthcare professionals, patients and carers users of EPaCCS22 semistructured interviewsImplementation
Hamilton16 Editorial6. Expert opinionNANANANA
Henry and Hayes17 Commentary6.Expert opinionNANANANA
Hunt18 Commentary6.Expert opinionNANANANA
Johnson19 Commentary6.Expert opinionNANANANA
Jones and Whitmore20 Editorial6. Expert opinionNANANANA
Lindsey and Hayes21 Commentary6. Expert opinionNANANANA
Millares Martin31 Cross-sectional4. Qualitative and observational without control groupQuantitativeUKCCGs across England209 surveysImplementation
Millington-Sanders et al 32 Descriptive4. Qualitative and observational without control groupQuantitativeRichmond, LondonPatients with an EPaCCS record between November 2010 and August 2012Secondary data analysisAchievement of PPD
Mullick et al 22 Narrative review6. Expert opinionNANANANA
Murphy-Jones23 Commentary6. Expert opinionNANANANA
Petrova et al 5 Discussion paper6. Expert opinionNANANANA
Pringle et al 33 Service evaluation4. Qualitative and observational without control groupQuantitativeLothianPatients known to specialist palliative care community teamSecondary data analysisACP documentation
Purdy et al 34 Retrospective cohort with control group3. Controlled cohort and case control studiesQuantitativeNorth Somerset and SomersetPatients who died from September 2011 to February 2012 and potentially eligible for EoLCSecondary data analysisPlace of death and hospital admissions
Riley and Madill24 Discussion paper6. Expert opinionNANANANA
Sleeman and Higginson25 Commentary6. Expert opinionNANANANA
Smith et al 7 Retrospective cohort4. Qualitative and observational without control groupQuantitativeLondonPatients who died from August 2010 to March 2012 with an EPaCCS recordSecondary data analysisAchievement of PPD
Smith and Riley26 Commentary6. Expert opinionNANANANA
Wye et al 36 Realistic evaluation4. Qualitative and observational without control groupQualitativeNorth Somerset and SomersetHealthcare professionals, patients and carers users of EPaCCSDocumentation analysis, 15 observations of services, 148 interviewsImplementation
Wye et al 37 Mixed-methods4. Qualitative and observational without control groupMixed methodsNorth Somerset and SomersetHealthcare professionals users of EPaCCS101 interviewsImplementation
Wye27 Commentary6. Expert opinionNANANANA
  • ACP, advance care planning; CCG, clinical commissioning group;EPaCCS, electronic palliative care coordination systems; EoLC, end-of-life care; GMED, Grampian medical emergency department; NA, not applicable; PPD, preferred place of death.