Table 2

Characteristics of included reports

AuthorStudy designLevel of evidenceQual/quantRegionParticipantsMethods of data collectionType of outcome reported
Ipsos MORI39 Pilot evaluationReportQualitativeBrighton and Hove, London, Leeds, Mid Essex, Salford, Sandwell and North SomersetPilot leadersDocument analysis, interviewsImplementation
NHS Improving Quality38 Cross-sectionalReportQuantitativeCCGs in EnglandCCGs across England188 surveysImplementation, ACP documentation and place of death
NHS Improving Quality40 Mixed methodsReportQuantitativeBrighton and Hove, London, Leeds, Mid Essex, Salford, Sandwell, Medway, Bedfodshire, Birmingham, North East and North SomersetHES hospital care, local EPaCCS data and ONS data on DiUPR from January 2008 to June 2012. Members of EPaCCS team.Secondary data analysis and 55 surveysDiUPR, achievement of PPD, hospital admissions, cost and implementation*
QualitativeEPaCCS team membersTwo focus groupImplementation
Whole System Partnership41 Mixed methodsReportQuantitative10 sites from London, South West England, East of England, North West and East MidlandsONS data on place of death in 139 CCGs between 2011 and 2016. HES data on hospital admissions in the last year of life in 10 CCGs areas.Secondary data analysis and 91 surveysDiUPR and cost
QualitativeHealthcare professionals, patients, carers, system leaders.12 in-depth interviewsImplementation
  • *Data on place of death were only available for four EPaCCS sites.

  • ACP, advance care planning; CCG, clinical commissioning group; DiUPR, death in usual place of residence;EPaCCS, Electronic Palliative Care Coordination Systems; HES, Hospital Episodes Statistics;NHS, National Health Service; ONS, Office of National Statistics; PPD, preferred place of death.