Table 1

Characteristics of studies included

StudyInterventionStudy designNumber of sitesAge in years, mean (SD) placebo arm% males placebo armTool to measure fatigueWeeksPlacebo dosageRouteCancer stageN
Ashrafi et al22BupropionTwo armsns55.2 (17.6)50FACIT-F4Once- a dayOralPalliative20
Auret et al23DexamphetamineTwo arms167.8 (12.5)80BFI1Twice a dayOralPalliative18
Barton et al24 GinsengFour armsns62 (13)35BFI8Twice a dayOralCurative39
Barton et al25 GinsengTwo arms4055.9 (11.8)25MFSI-SF4Twice a dayOralSurvivors153
Berenson et al26ArmodafinilCross-over67 (2.3)60BFI4Once a dayOralCurative23
Boele et al27ModafinilCross-over3nsnsCSI6Twice a dayOralCurative14
Bruera et al28DonepezilTwo arms256 (12.4)35.2FACIT-F1Once a dayOralPalliative56
Bruera et al29MethylphenidateTwo arms2ns41.5FACIT-F1prnOralPalliative53
Chen et al30PG2Two arms156.9 (ns)37BFI4Less than once a dayIntravenousPalliative30
Cruciani et al31CarnitineTwo arms270.3 (12.9)33FACT-An2Twice a dayOralPalliative12
Cruciani et al32CarnitineTwo arms2462 (12.2)42.3BFI4Twice a dayOralCurative138
de Oliveira et al33GuaranaCross-over†2ns0FACIT-F3Twice a dayOralns60
Del Fabbro et al34TestosteroneTwo arms263 (6)100FACIT-F4Less than once a dayIMPalliative16
del Giglio et al35GuaranaTwo arms52.1715.1731.2BFI3Twice a dayOralAny stage40
Eguchi et al36CorticosteroidsTwo arms22ns62.5VAS1Twice a dayOralPalliative16
Escalante et al37MethylphenidateTwo arms1ns0BFI4Once a dayOralCurative33
Hovey et al38ModafinilTwo arms2568 (10.7)78.6MDASI2Twice a dayOralCurative24
Jean-Pierre et al39ModafinilTwo arms260 (ns)34.1BFI item 38ProgressiveOralCurative316
Kamath et al40TRHCross-over258 (9.4)12.5VAS-ELess than once a dayIntravenousCurative8
Lee et al41ArmodafinilTwo arms nsns53.8FACIT-F6Once a dayOralPalliative29
Lower et al42DexmethylphenidateTwo arms2453.2 (8.4)6.5FACIT-F8Twice a dayOralCurative77
Lund Rasmussen et al43 MelatoninCross-over†160/64 (ns)MFI-202Once a dayOralPalliative50
Moraska et al44MethylphenidateTwo arms60.6 (13.8)43BFI2ProgressiveOralCurative63
Morrow et al45ParoxetineTwo arms1856.3 (12.3)28MAF question 18Once a dayOralCurative235
Richard et al46MethylphenidateTwo arms1ns100FACIT-F10ProgressiveOralCurative12
Roth et al47MethylphenidateTwo arms71 (10)100BFI6progressiveOralPalliative13
Sette et al48GuaranaTwo arms155.7 (ns)0BFI5Twice a dayOralCurative5
Sette et al48GuaranaTwo arms152 (ns)0BFI3Twice a dayOralCurative25
Spathis et al49ModafinilTwo arms2469.1 (9.4)50.5FACIT-F4ProgressiveOralPalliative85
Yennurajalingam et al50DexamethasoneTwo arms3ns59.9FACIT-F2Twice a dayOralPalliative41
Yennurajalingam et al51 GinsengTwo arms1ns62.5FACIT-F4Twice a dayOralPalliative56
  • *Cross-over design, but endpoint before cross-over, so studied as two arms.

  • †Cross-over with washout period, all placebo data were used.

  • BFI, Brief Fatigue Inventory; CSI, Checklist Individual Strength; FACIT-F, Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy – Fatigue ; FACT-An, Assessment of Cancer Therapy – Anemia; IM, intramuscular; MAF, Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue; MDASI, MD Anderson Symptom Inventory; MFI, Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory; MFSI-SF, Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory – Short Form; ns, not stated; TRH, thyrotropin-releasing hormone; VAS, Visual Analogue Scale; VAS-E, Visual Analog Scale-Energy.