Table 4

Risk of bias in non-randomised studies (ROBINS-I tool)

et al 35
Bias due to confounding +
Bias in selection of participants into the study
Bias in classification of interventions +
Bias due to deviations from intended interventions +
Bias due to missing data +
Bias in measurement of outcomes +
Bias in selection of the reported result +
Overall biasSerious risk