Table 3

Characteristics of high-risk and low-risk participants

 High risk, n=191 Low risk, n=322 P value
Age, mean years (SD)69.4 (15.7)54.7 (18.5)<0.001
Sex, no. (%)0.68
 Male105 (55.0)171 (53.1)
 Female86 (45.0)151 (46.9)
Living status, no. (%)<0.001
 Private residence alone66 (34.6)88 (27.3)
 Private residence not alone99 (51.8)214 (66.5)
 Residential care facility15 (7.9)4 (1.2)
 Other11 (5.8)16 (5.0)
Mode of presentation, no.(%)<0.001
 Elective13 (6.8)86 (26.7)
 Emergency139 (72.8)175 (54.3)
 Interhospital transfer39 (20.4)61 (18.9)
Hospital service line, no. (%)0.002
 Medical92 (48.2)106 (32.9)
 Surgical52 (27.2)136 (42.2)
 Cancer care22 (11.5)35 (10.9)
 Critical care25 (13.1)45 (14.0)
SPICT general criteria, no. (%)
 Persistent symptoms128 (67.0)78 (24.2)All
 ≥2 unplanned admissions110 (57.9)78 (24.2)<0.001
 Dependent on others127 (66.5)49 (15.2)
 Poor performance status124 (64.9)27 (8.4)
 Weight loss92/185 (49.7)45/316 (14.2)
 Requesting palliative care43 (22.8)1 (0.3)
CFS-9, median (IQR)6 (5–7)2 (2–4)<0.001
Karnofsky performance status, median (IQR)50 (40–70)80 (60–90)<0.001
  • High risk was prospectively defined as an answer of ‘no’ to the  surprise question by either medical or nursing staff caring for the patient, plus two or more SPICT general criteria.

  • CFS-9, 9-item Clinical Frailty Score.