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Furosemide in end-stage heart failure: community subcutaneous infusions
  1. Andrew Brown,
  2. Katharine Westley,
  3. Judith Robson,
  4. Leonie Armstrong,
  5. Iain Matthews,
  6. Craig Runnett,
  7. David Ripley and
  8. Honey Thomas
  1. Cardiology Department, Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Shields, Tyne and Wear, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Honey Thomas, Department of Cardiology, Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Shields, Tyne and Wear NE27 0QJ, UK; Honey.Thomas{at}


Background In chronic heart failure many patients have recurrent hospital admissions and it is the leading cause of admission in people aged over 65 years. In those with end-stage heart failure, there is limited evidence that furosemide can be given subcutaneously to relieve symptoms and avoid hospital admission.

Method We initiated a community-based continuous subcutaneous infusion (CSCI) furosemide service for the treatment of advanced heart failure. We aimed to increase patient choice, offer an alternative to hospital admission and, in patients at the end of their life, allow them to die at their preferred place of care with symptom alleviation. We retrospectively reviewed case notes.

Results 36 consecutive episodes of CSCI of treatment were recorded in 28 patients. 15 patients (54%) survived beyond the initial treatment course with 13 patients (87%) avoiding acute hospital admission. There was a reduction in mean hospital admission rates from 2.87 to 0.73 (p<0.001) in the 6-month periods either side of the first episode of CSCI furosemide. A median reduction of 4 kg weight loss was recorded. 13 patients died during the initial treatment course. 12 (92%) died at home and 1 died at the hospital palliative care unit. All had symptoms controlled.

Conclusion Subcutaneous furosemide can be successfully delivered in the community. In addition to palliation in the final days of life, community subcutaneous furosemide can be an effective treatment leading to weight loss and improved symptoms with survival for several months.

  • drug administration
  • heart failure
  • home care
  • terminal care

Statistics from


  • Contributors HT designed data collection tools, revised the paper, monitored and led the project. She is the guarantor. AB designed data collection tools, analysed the data, drafted and revised the paper. KW analysed the data, drafted and revised the paper. JR and LA designed and implemented the project, designed data collection tools, revised the draft paper. IM, CR and DR designed and implemented the project and revised the draft paper.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information.

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