Background Advance care planning (ACP) supports people who are seriously ill to be cared for in the way, and in the place that they prefer. However, evidence suggests there are lower levels of ACP in people from Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) communities. BAME groups are also more likely to desire invasive medical interventions, regardless of prognosis and impact on quality of life. Little is known about how the model of resuscitation decision-making fits with the social, cultural and religious values and beliefs of BAME groups. Evidence also suggests that health care professionals (HCPs) report a lack of confidence in having culturally appropriate discussions with BAME patients and their families. Equipping professionals to be more confident about such ACP discussions with BAME patients may lead to achieving patient preferences.
Aims With a focus on making decisions about resuscitation, this study explores professional views and experiences of ACP with patients from BAME backgrounds. It aims to identify barriers and enablers and person-centred outcomes to such discussions and provide evidence for training professionals.
Methods Thematic analysis of qualitative semi-structured interviews with HCPs across primary, secondary and tertiary care in Leicester, including GPs, hospital doctors and nurses.
Results There was an emphasis on the significance of building rapport, the timing of discussions and navigating communication barriers. Barriers to decision-making included: patients’ and their families understanding of both prognosis and resuscitation; and differing values amongst generations of migrants. Professionals struggled with how to find a balance between acting in a non-discriminatory way whilst respecting cultural differences. Most HCPs highlight the need for further training and/or support.
Conclusion There are significant barriers for HCPs when discussing resuscitation decisions with people from BAME communities. This increases the complexity of navigating ACP and achieving patients’ preferences. HCPs would benefit from further training and support.
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