Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Living actively in the face of impending death: constantly adjusting to bodily decline at the end-of-life
  1. Deidre D Morgan1,2,
  2. David C Currow3,
  3. Linda Denehy2 and
  4. Sanchia A Aranda2,4
  1. 1Flinders University, Discipline, Occupational Therapy, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
  2. 2University of Melbourne, School of Health Sciences, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  3. 3Flinders University, Discipline, Palliative and Supportive Services Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
  4. 4Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  1. Correspondence to Dr Deidre Morgan, Occupational Therapy, Flinders University, G.P.O. Box 2100, Adelaide SA 5001, Australia; deidre.morgan{at}


Context People with advanced cancer experience bodily change resulting in debilitating functional decline. Although inability to participate in everyday activities (occupation) contributes to profound suffering, limited research has examined the relationship between altered bodily experience (embodiment) and functional ability.

Objectives The purpose of this study was to better understand the lived experience of functional decline for people with advanced cancer living at home.

Methods Indepth interviews were conducted with 10 community dwelling people with advanced cancer about their bodily experiences of functional decline. This study employed a pragmatic qualitative approach, informed by hermeneutic phenomenology.

Results People described living with rapidly disintegrating bodies and how this affected their ability to participate in everyday activities. Analysis identified themes which were evaluated against conceptual frameworks of ‘occupation’ and ‘embodiment’. People experienced a shifting sense of self. They had to continuously reinterpret changing bodies. Previously automatic movements became disjointed and effortful. Simple actions like standing or getting out of bed required increasing concentration. Relentless bodily breakdown disrupted peoples’ relationship with time, hindering their ability, but not their desire, to participate in everyday activities. Contending with this deterioration is the work of adaptation to functional decline at the end-of-life.

Conclusions This study highlights the role active participation in everyday activities plays in mediating adjustment to functional decline. These findings challenge us to look beyond palliation of physical symptoms and psychospiritual care as ends in themselves. Symptom control and palliation should be viewed as mechanisms to optimise active participation in essential and valued activities.

  • Cancer

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.