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Enabling successful hospital discharge to home at end of life: can a carer support needs assessment tool (CSNAT) help improve support for family carers?
  1. Gail Ewing1,
  2. Lynn Austin2,
  3. Debra Gibson2 and
  4. Gunn Grande2
  1. 1University of Cambridge, UK
  2. 2The University of Manchester, UK


Introduction Successful hospital discharge and prevention of readmission often depend on carers’ ability to support patients.

Aim To investigate how carers are supported during patient discharge from acute care towards end of life (EOL) and suitability of using a Carer Support Needs Assessment Tool (CSNAT) to improve this support.

Methods Qualitative design: focus groups (FGs) with 40 practitioners supporting patient discharge from three English acute hospital trusts; interviews with 22 carers of patients discharged. 14 practitioners and 5 carers joined two final workshops. FGs/interviews/workshops explored current discharge processes and potential value of using CSNAT. Thematic framework analysis was conducted.

Results Both practitioners and carers viewed CSNAT as highly relevant in supporting carers at discharge. Discharge processes were heavily focussed on patients: carers were consulted but about patients’ needs; there was no systematic approach to supporting carers. CSNAT was identified as a means of facilitating much needed EOL conversations which often were absent, enabling carers to articulate concerns, and managing carers’ expectations of their caregiving role at EOL and support available (or not) in the community. However, palliative care discharges were complex: from many different wards involving different practitioners. No single professional group was identified as best placed to support carers. Feasibility issues included skills, confidence and time for carer assessment and support. A two stage process using CSNAT earlier in hospital admission, then as a carer-held record to manage transition to home were seen as ways forward.

Conclusion CSNAT shows good potential to enhance carer support at hospital discharge and play a role in preventing readmissions towards EOL.


  1. Ewing G, Brundle C, Payne S, Grande G. The Carer Support Needs Assessment Tool (CSNAT) for use in palliative and end-of-life care at home: A validation study. J Pain Symptom Manage 2013;46:395–405

  2. Ewing G, Grande GE. Development of a Carer Support Needs Assessment Tool (CSNAT) for end of life care practice at home: a qualitative study. Palliat Med 2013;27:244–256

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