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Mapping palliative care provision in European prisons: an EAPC Task Force Survey
  1. Mary Turner1,
  2. Aline Chassagne2,
  3. Manuel Luis Capelas3,
  4. Kenneth Chambaere4,
  5. Stacey Panozzo5,
  6. Carla Marinho Teves3 and
  7. Edith Riegler6
  8. on behalf of the EAPC Task Force on Palliative Care for Prisoners
  1. 1 School of Human and Health Sciences, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, UK
  2. 2 Clinical Investigation Centre, University of Burgundy Franche-comté, Besançon, France
  3. 3 Institute of Health Sciences, Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Lisbon, Portugal
  4. 4 End-of-Life Care Research Group, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium
  5. 5 Palliative Nexus, St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  6. 6 Drug Prevention and Health Branch, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Vienna, Austria
  1. Correspondence to Dr Mary Turner, School of Human and Health Sciences, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield HD1 3DH, UK; m.turner{at}


Objectives Prison populations around the world are ageing and numbers are rising, leading to greater demand for palliative care for prisoners approaching the end of life. This paper reports a survey that was undertaken by the European Association for Palliative Care Task Force on mapping palliative care provision for prisoners in Europe. The Task Force was established to begin to address the gap in research knowledge by exploring prison systems and care provision across different countries.

Methods The survey, developed by the Task Force Steering Committee, consisted of 40 questions in six sections. It was completed through online searches; only data that were publicly available on the internet were included. Numerical data were analysed using descriptive statistics, and thematic comparisons were made of free-text data.

Findings The survey was completed for eight countries: Australia, Belgium, Czech Republic, England and Wales, France, Portugal, Scotland and Slovakia. Three main findings are reported here: healthcare and palliative care provision in prisons, deaths in custody and compassionate release. Despite increasing numbers of older prisoners, relatively few prisons provide inpatient care, and only one country has any prisons that provide dedicated palliative care services. Early release on compassionate grounds is extremely rare in most countries.

Conclusion For the principle of equivalence to be adhered to, facilities for sick and dying prisoners need to be improved, or many more people need to be released on compassionate grounds at the end of life. This mapping study has identified key issues in relation to palliative care in prison and provides the basis for further international research.

  • terminal care
  • end-of-life care

Data availability statement

Data are available upon reasonable request.

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Data are available upon reasonable request.

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  • Collaborators Elodie Cretin, Katherine Pettus, Rachel Kemp, Emma Carduff

  • Contributors MT and AC planned the work that is reported here. MT, AC, MLC, KC, SP and CMT conducted the study. All authors contributed to the reporting of the study, and MT took responsibility for the overall content of this paper.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.