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End of life in hospitalised prisoners: a group comparison of palliative medicine and hospital use
  1. Stacey Panozzo1,2,
  2. Tamsin Bryan3,
  3. David Marco2,4,
  4. Anna Collins1,2,
  5. Carrie Lethborg5 and
  6. Jennifer Philip1,2
  1. 1 Palliative Nexus, St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne Pty Ltd, Fitzroy, Victoria, Australia
  2. 2 Department of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  3. 3 Palliative Care Services, St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne Pty Ltd, Fitzroy, Victoria, Australia
  4. 4 Centre for Palliative Care, St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne Pty Ltd, Fitzroy, Victoria, Australia
  5. 5 Department of Social Work, St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria, Australia
  1. Correspondence to Dr Stacey Panozzo, Palliative Nexus, St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne Pty Ltd, Fitzroy, VIC 3065, Australia; stacey.panozzo{at}


Background Providing optimal palliative and end-of-life care for people in prison with advanced progressive disease is a growing challenge. This study aimed to examine hospital and palliative care utilisation for people in prison who are hospitalised during the final 3 months of life and to compare with a disease-matched non-incarcerated patient cohort.

Methods A retrospective cohort study of people in prison who died between 2009 and 2019 in an Australian public hospital that provides tertiary-level healthcare for 18% of Australia’s prison population. Demographic, clinical and service use data were extracted from medical records of eligible patients experiencing incarceration (prison group) and a disease-matched, non-incarcerated patient comparator group (comparator group).

Results At the time of death, patients in the prison group were aged a median of 20 years younger than the comparator group (median age 58 vs 78 years, p<0.01). The prison group experienced more than double the mean length of acute care hospital stay at the end of life. A higher proportion of patients in the prison group experienced an intensive care unit episode (22% vs 12%). More than two-thirds (71%) of the prison group patients were seen by palliative care prior to death, similar to the comparator group (p=0.44). Those transferred to the palliative care unit had a shorter length of stay and were admitted later, just prior to death (median 5 vs 8 days).

Conclusions People in prison have prolonged acute care public hospital stays and are more likely to experience escalation of care at the end of life. Future opportunity may exist for increased access to formal subacute care settings for people in prison with life-limiting illness to receive optimal palliative and end-of-life care.

  • terminal care
  • chronic conditions

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  • X @palmed_nexus, @AnnaLCollins

  • Contributors JP, CL and TB were responsible for the conception of the study. SP, TB and DM collected and analysed the data. Data were interpreted by SP, TB, DM, AC and JP and confirmed by all authors. All authors were involved in drafting and critically appraising the manuscript before providing final approval.

  • Funding This study was funded by the Inclusive Health Innovation Fund, St Vincent’s Health Australia.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.