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9  A cross-cultural validation of the good death questionnaires in Indonesian
  1. Astrid Pratidina Susilo1,
  2. Laila Isrona2,
  3. Rizky Loviana Roza2,
  4. Khayyirannisa Sitismart2 and
  5. Adhiya Azni2
  1. 1Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Surabaya, Indonesia
  2. 2Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Andalas, Indonesia


Introduction The concept of Good Death is essential in palliative care. Palliative care supports patients to die with dignity and without suffering. Since patients, families, health professionals, and communities may have diverse perspectives on death, it is imperative to assess Good Death’s perception, which can also be culturally bounded. This assessment can be a starting point to discuss care tailored to patients‘ wishes. The Good Death Questionnaire can help assess these diverse perspectives. This questionnaire consists of 15 items that represent patients‘ wishes on what a good death is. Unfortunately, the Indonesian version of the questionnaire has not yet been available.

Aims We aimed to conduct a cross-cultural validation of the Good Death questionnaire in the Indonesian language.

Methods Our study context was the Minangkabau community, a matrilineal, communal, and Islamic community in West Sumatera, Indonesia. First, we translated the Good Death questionnaire into Indonesian, then translated it back into English. Seventy-one participants, consisting of patients and families, doctors and nurses, and community leaders, filled out the Indonesian version of the Good Death questionnaire. Afterward, we conducted semi-structured interviews to explore their responses to the questionnaire.

Results Participants agreed on most items in the Good Death questionnaire. However, some conflicting perspective occurs on items that give the impression that patients could decide on their death, for example, the time or place of death. Such wishes were considered ‘overruling God’s will’ and, therefore, in a culture with a strong Islamic religion, were less acceptable.

Conclusions The Good Death questionnaire could be validated in Indonesian with some revisions tailored to the cultural and religious context.

Impact An Indonesian version of the Good Death questionnaire is practical and beneficial for palliative care services, education, and research.


  1. Tayeb MA, Al-Zamel E, Fareed MM, Abouellail HA. A ‘good death’: perspectives of Muslim patients and health care providers. Annals of Saudi Medicine 2010;30(3):215–221.

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