Table 4

Risk of bias in non-randomised studies (ROBINS-I tool)

Morris-Stiff
et al35
Bias due to confounding+
Bias in selection of participants into the study
Bias in classification of interventions+
Bias due to deviations from intended interventions+
Bias due to missing data+
Bias in measurement of outcomes+
Bias in selection of the reported result+
Overall biasSerious risk